Portals of Entry

Portals of Entry

Virus enters host into 4 different sites:

  • Skin
  • Mucous membrane
  • Placenta
  • Parental route

Pathogens can cross placenta and infect foetus which leads to birth defect, premature birth and spontaneous abortion. In the skin, it is barrier to most pathogen. Skin infections are more frequent in immunodeficient patients, seniors and infants than in healthy individuals with an intact immune system. The severity of infections ranges from localized, self-limiting cutaneous infections to widespread necrosis of the skin, muscle, and fascia. The most frequent infections of the skin and mucous membranes are caused by bacterial and viral infectious agents. For parental route, pathogens are deposited via punctures like nail and needles.

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